Cordell Hull

Cordell Hull

Famous as Secretary of State, USA
Born on 02 October 1871
Born in Tennessee
Died on 23 July 1955
Nationality United States
Works & Achievements Father of the United Nations; Nobel Peace Prize (1945)




Cordell Hull


Cordell Hull Image
Cordell Hull was a major political leader of Tennessee, USA and 47th Secretary of States of the United States. He is credited as the longest-serving Secretary of State remaining in the position for eleven consecutive years. Hull served the country from 1933 to 1944 and was a close ally to the then president Franklin Delano Roosevelt who called him the father of the 'United Nations' for his notable contribution in the creation of the organization. In 1945, the Norwegian Nobel Committee honored Hull with the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution in the establishment of the United Nations. In a political career of ups and down, Cordell drew heavy criticism on his stand on the Jews (Victims of the Nazi Holocaust) entry in the country after he advised the president to refuse shelter. Hull died after suffering a series of strokes and cardiac arrests on 23 July 1955.

Childhood
CordellHull was born October 2, 1871 near Byrdstown, Tennessee to William Paschal Hull and Elizabeth. Cordell was the third of five sons. His father was a farmer and a lumber merchant. Since childhood, Cordell developed an interest in learning and wanted to become a lawyer.

Cordell completed his elementary education from Mountvale Academy at Celina and went to the National Normal University at Lebanon, Ohio. In 1891, Hull graduated from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University and admitted to the Bar. From 1893 to 1897, Cordell Hull served in the Tennessee House of Representatives. For some years, Cordell Hull had gone to serve as captain of the Fourth Tennessee Regiment in the Spanish-American War. He served in Cuba as a captain in the Fourth Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteer Infantry.

Judge
In 1903, after his return into the earlier profession, Cordell Hull was appointed to fill an unexpired term as judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the States. He held the position until 1907. His interest in the politics and association with the political campaigns sparked his desire to run for the state legislature.

Political Career
In 1907, Cordell Hull was elected to Congress from the Fourth Tennessee District. Hull successfully served as a U.S. Representative until 1931, interrupted only by two years as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Hull also served as a member of the “House Ways and Means Committee” for eighteen years, and was the leader of the “movement for low tariffs”.

In 1931, Cordell was elected to the Senate and two years later, in 1933, he was appointed “Secretary of State” by Roosevelt. Hull served in this office for the longest tenure in American History. He occupied the post for almost twelve years. Cordell Hull led the American delegation to the London Economic Conference in June 1933. The conference was perceived as an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the business leaders to comply with the new norms.

In November 1933 at the Seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay, Cordell Hull signed a protocol declaring that intervention in the affairs of the independent states of the New World would be taken as “illegal”. The conference laid the foundation for the "Good Neighbor" Policy with Latin American nations, which has been held responsible for preventing Nazi subterfuge in that region. Hull was responsive to the problems arising in the world. He fought aggressively and successfully in putting into force numerous trade agreements.

Hull was the Secretary of State responsible for foreign relations before and during the attack on Pearl Harbor and conducted negotiations in the developing crisis with Japan. He took a firm stand against Japanese imperialism, while seeking to avoid actual armed conflict. In February 1942, Hull was appointed chairman of the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy. The committee was set up to prepare recommendations for President Franklin D Roosevelt on the changing nature and state of the foreign policy in the post Second World War II scenario. He was the first person to head the committee.

Controversy
In 1939, on the advice of Cordell Hull, President Roosevelt denied entry to the ship “SS St. Louis” carrying around 1000 Jews. Hull's decision sent these people back to Europe on the heels of the Nazi Holocaust. The steps attracted strong criticisms and both Roosevelt and Hull were severely censured.

United Nations
Shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War, Hull proposed the formation of a new organization in which the US would participate to avoid any situation of another World War. To accomplish this aim, in 1942 Cordell Hull formed an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy comprising both Republicans and Democrats. Hull put his best efforts to protect the committee from being inclined to any of the political outfits. Hull and his staff drafted the "Charter of the United Nations" in mid-1943.

Last Years of Life
Due to serious illness, Cordell Hull had to resign from the office as Secretary of State on November 27, 1944, just before final ratification of the United Nations Charter in San Francisco. President Roosevelt was so impressed with the steps and measures of Cordell Hull that he offered him the seat of Vice President in his bid for election. However, because of his declining health, Hull refused to accept the offer and paved way for Harry Truman.

Recognizing Cordell Hull’s efforts to establish United Nations and in bringing forth the numerous economic reforms, the Norwegian Nobel Committee honored him with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945. The condition of his health declined further and Hull passed on July 23, 1955 in Washington, DC. He is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington Cathedral.

Timeline:
1871: October 2: Birth of Cordell Hull
1891: Hull graduated from Cumberland School of Law and admitted to the bar
1893: Cordell Hull served in the Tennessee House of Representatives
1903: Cordell Hull was appointed to fill an unexpired term as judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of the States
1907: Cordell Hull was elected to Congress from the Fourth Tennessee District
1931: Cordell Hull elected to the Senate
1933: Roosevelt appointed Cordell Hull as “the Secretary of state”
1933: Hull led the American delegation to the London Economic Conference in June 1933
1933: November: Cordell Hull led the US delegation to the Seventh Pan-American Conference in Montevideo, Uruguay
1942: February: Hull was appointed chairman of the Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policy
1943: Cordell Hull and his staff drafted the "Charter of the United Nations"
1944, November 27: Cordell Hull resigned from the office due to serious illness
1945: Cordell Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize
1955: July 23: Cordell Hull died in Washington DC

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